Lysosomal Storage Disease

Definition

Lysosomal storage disease is a group of disorders that affect specific enzymes. These enzymes normally break down items for reuse in the cells. If the enzymes are missing or don't work properly the items can build up and become toxic. This occurs in an area of the cell called lysosomes. The build up eventually leads to damage of cells and organs in the body.

There are over 40 different types of lysosomal diseases. The diseases are characterized by the specific enzymes involved:

  • Fabry Morquio’s disease—affects the kidney, heart, and skin
  • Gaucher disease —affects the spleen and bones, and causes anemia
  • Hurler’s syndrome—affects the spleen, liver, joints, and eyes; causes intellectual disability and deafness
  • Maroteaux-Larny disease—affects the skin, bones, liver, and spleen
  • Niemann-Pick disease —affects the spleen, liver, and lungs
  • Pompe disease—affects the liver, heart, and muscle tissue
  • Tay-Sachs disease —affects the brain

Causes

Lysosomal storage disease is caused by a genetic problem. The genes that plan the production of the enzymes is faulty. Both parent must pass the gene on to the child in order for the disease to develop.

Genetic Material
Chromosome DNA
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Risk Factors

Lysosomal storage disease is more common in families with Ashkenazi Jewish, Finnish, or Dutch heritage. A family history increases the chance of the disease as well.

Symptoms

Symptoms can be severe and appear shortly after birth or mild and detected later in life. Symptoms will depend on the specific type of disease. Some common symptoms include:

  • Recurrent infections or hernias
  • Developmental delays
  • Problems with hearing or sight
  • Problems including pain with bones
  • Problems with heart

These symptoms may be caused by other conditions. If your child has any of these symptoms, talk to the doctor right away.

Diagnosis

The doctor will ask about your child's symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Skin and blood testing may be done to look for the specific enzyme that is causing the problem.

Other tests may include:

Prenatal testing and newborn screening may help with early detection.

Treatment

Treatment is focused on managing the symptoms caused by the missing enzymes. Specific treatment depends on the enzyme defect that your child has but options may include:

  • Dialysis —to remove substances from the blood
  • Physical therapy
  • Surgery
  • Medication

Other treatments may include:

  • Substrate Synthesis Inhibition Therapy (SSI)—medication that decreases the item that build up in the cells due to missing enzymes.
  • Enzyme Replacement Therapy (ERT)—Working enzymes are delivered through an IV to do the job of the defective enzymes.
  • Stem Cell Transplant— stem cells are transplanted through IV to encourage the body to make the missing enzyme.

Prevention

There is no way to prevent these kinds of disorders.

Revision Information

  • Lysosomal Disease Network

    http://www.lysosomaldiseasenetwork.org/

  • National MPS Society

    http://www.mpssociety.org/

  • Canadian Society for Mucopolysaccharide & Related Diseases

    http://www.mpssociety.ca/

  • Health Canada

    http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/

  • Lysosomal Storage Disease. American Society of Gene and Cell Therapy website. Available at: http://www.asgct.org/general-public/educational-resources/gene-therapy-and-cell-therapy-for-diseases/lysosomal-storage-diseases . Accessed June 24, 2013.

  • Lysosomal Storage Disease. Children's Hospitals amd Clinics of Minnesota website. Available at: http://www.childrensmn.org/services/other-programs-and-services/other-programs-and-services-e-l/genetics/lysosomal-storage-disease . Accessed June 24, 2013.

  • Lipid Storage Disease. National Institute of Neurological Disorders an Stroke website. Available at: http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/lipid%5Fstorage%5Fdiseases/detail%5Flipid%5Fstorage%5Fdiseases.htm . Accessed June 24, 2013.

  • Lysosomal Storage Disease. National Organization of Rare Diseases website. Available at: https://www.rarediseases.org/rare-disease-information/rare-diseases/byID/1132/viewFullReport . Accessed June 24, 2013.

  • Marsden D, Levy H. Newborn screening of lysosomal storage disorders. Clin Chem. 2010;56(7):1079.

  • Wynn RF, Wraith JE, Mercer J, et al. Improved metabolic correction in patients with lysosomal storage disease treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplant compared with enzyme replacement therapy. J Pediatr. 2009;154(4):609.

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